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Mapp & Hession Pharmacy Murwillumbah King Street Chemist Greg Mapp & Paul Hession

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We are passionate about providing you with all round health solutions.


Please use this resource page as your gateway to better health.  Talk to our pharmacists about ways we can collaborate to support your needs.

Your Health Fact Sheet

Vitamins



Recommended Dietary Intakes
30 mcg to 300 mcg


This Vitamin Is Essential For...

  • helps convert food to energy
  • required for the synthesis of carbohydrates, proteins, and fatty acids.
  • healthy hair, skin, and nails.
  • cell growth.
  • nerve tissue and sweat glands.


Sources...

Cheese, kidneys, brewers yeast, cooked egg yolk, salmon, soybeans, sunflower seeds, nuts, salt water fish, broccoli, and sweet potatoes.


Comments...

Eating raw egg whites can inhibit the absorption of biotin. As can antibiotics and saccharin.


Deficiencies Can Cause...

  • scaly, oily skin rash.
  • hair loss.
  • nausea.
  • vomiting.
  • muscle pain.
  • loss of appetite.
  • a red, inflamed tongue.
  • fatigue.

Biotin



Recommended Dietary Intakes Men - 800 mg
Women up to 54 years of age - 800 mg
Women over 54 years of age - 1000 mg


This Mineral Is Essential For...

  • strong bones.
  • regulating blood pressure, and preventing heart spasms.
  • lowers cholesterol levels.
  • muscular growth.
  • blood clotting.
  • may help prevent some cancers.
  •  helps the skin.


Sources...

Milk, leafy green vegetables, dairy products, salmon, sardine, seafood, nuts, brewers yeast, dried fruit and whole grains.


Comments...

Athletes and menopausal women need more calcium, excessive exercise can halt the production of calcium. Do not take calcium with iron. Too much calcium can interfere with the absorption of zinc. Try to include more of the above mentioned foods into your diet. Stay away from highly refined foods and sugars.


Deficiencies Can Cause...

  • Gastrointestinal upset (nausea, diarrhoea, constipation).
  • weight gain.
  • increased appetite
  • drowsiness, tiredness, lightheadedness.
  • headache.
  • flushing.
  • aching joints
  • brittle nails.
  • eczema.
  • high cholesterol.
  • heart palpitations.
  • high blood pressure.
  • insomnia.

Calcium



This Vitamin Is Essential For...

  • aids in the production of stomach acid - hydrochloric acid.
  • maintenance of all body fluids
  • nerve and muscle function.
  • waste elimination.


Sources...

A diet of unprocessed natural foods provides more than enough chloride for human health. Just a pinch of table salt contains about 250 mg, one-third of the RDA.


Comments

Excess chloride is usually excreted in the urine and does not pose a threat. Sometimes however, increases in chloride coincide with a diet high in salt an potassium. This creates an increased susceptibility to high blood pressure.


Deficiency Can Cause...

Chloride deficiency is extremely rare and is usually due to illness such as excessive vomiting, sweating, diarrhoea, loss of appetite and muscle cramps. Symptoms include muscle weakness, loss of appetite, and lethargy.

Chloride



Recommended Dietary Intakes 

Adults, 50 mcg to 200 mcg


This Vitamin Is Essential For...

  • sugar and fat metabolism.
  • regulates the body's use of sugar.
  • can aid in weight loss programs.
  • energy.


Sources

Liver, poultry, wholegrains, beer, brewers yeast, brown rice, cheese, meat.


Comments

Diabetics should never take this element as a supplement. Other people may develop a rash or become lightheaded after taking Chronium - switch brands or stop taking the supplement. Also see your doctor.


Deficiencies Can Cause...

  • alcohol intolerance.
  • elevate blood sugar levels.
  • glucose intolerance.

Chromium



This Mineral Is Essential For…

The mineral cobalt is part of vitamin B12. Cobalt helps form red blood cells and maintain nerve tissue.
Consuming large amounts of inorganic cobalt stimulates growth of the thyroid gland and may lead to the overproduction of red blood cells.


Sources...

Cobalt must be obtained from foods such as liver, kidneys, milk, oysters, clams, or sea vegetables, or from vitamin B12 supplements. Inorganic cobalt has no nutritional value but is sometimes added to beer as an anti-foaming agent.

Cobalt



Recommended Dietary Intakes

Adults - 1.5 mg to 3 mg


This Vitamin Is Essential For...

  • formation of bone, hemoglobin and red blood cells.
  • helps in the absorption and use of iron.
  • assists in the regulation of blood pressure and heart rate.
  • strengthening blood vessels, bones, tendons, and nerves.
  • promoting fertility.
  • skin and hair pigmentation.
  • nervous system.
  • formation of collagen.


Some say that copper has an antioxidant affect on the system.


Sources...

Seafood and organ meats are the richest sources, blackstrap molasses, nuts, seeds, green vegetables, black pepper, cocoa, and water passed through copper pipes also contain significant quantities. The levels of copper are directly related to the levels of vitamin C and zinc in the body.


Deficiencies Can Cause...

  • Brittle, discoloured hair;
  • skeletal defects;
  • anaemia;
  • high blood pressure;
  • heart arrhythmia’s; and
  • infertility.


A deficiency in this mineral is very rare.


Excess copper can cause vomiting, nausea, muscle pain, and stomach aches.

Copper





Recommended Dietary Intakes 

Adults, 1.5 mg to 4 mg


This Element Is Essential For…

  • healthy bones and teeth.


Sources...

Tap water, tea, meat, fish, cereals and fruit.


Comments...

The fluoride in water is controversial. It is not likely to cause deficiencies these days. Do not take any supplements without first seeing your doctor.


Deficiencies Can Cause...

  • Tooth decay.

Fluoride



Recommended Dietary Intakes 

Adults - 150 mcg; 

Pregnant women - 120 mcg


This Mineral Is Essential For...

  • metabolising fats.
  • physical and mental development. 
  • thyroid gland.
  • preventing goiter.


As part of several thyroid hormones, iodine controls nutrient metabolism; nerve and muscle function; skin, hair, tooth, and nail condition.


Sources...

Iodised salt, kelp, seafood, salt water fish and vegetables grown in iodine-rich soils are excellent sources of this mineral. Also found in garlic, mushrooms, sesame seeds, sea salt, soybeans, spinach.


Comments...

You usually will not have a deficiency in this mineral and supplements are unnecessary.


Deficiency Can Cause...

This is very uncommon, however, some symptoms include -

  • weight gain,
  • hair loss,
  • listlessness,
  • insomnia,
  • mental retardation.


Excessive iodine can cause a metallic taste in the mouth, sores in the mouth, swollen salivary glands, nervousness, headache, rashes and can lead to thyroid hyperactivity, diarrhoea, and vomiting.

Iodine



Recommended Dietary Intakes 

Men - 7 mg 

Pre-menopausal women - 12 -16 mg. 

Post-menopausal women - 5 - 7 mg.
Pregnant women - add 10 - 20 mg.


This Mineral Is Essential For...

  • transportation and storage of oxygen in the blood and muscles.
  • energy production.
  • immune functioning.
  • growth.
  • produces haemoglobin and myoglobin.


Sources

Red meat, chicken, seafood, eggs and other animal products, dark-green vegetables, avocados, whole grains, nuts, dried fruit, enriched breads and cereals and other plant foods.


Comments

Coffee, tea, soy-based foods, antacids, ulcers and tetracycline inhibit iron absorption. You need to have enough hydrochloric acid in the stomach for iron to be absorbed properly. Other substances required for proper absorption of iron include - vitamin A, copper, manganese, molybdenum, and the B vitamins.


Women need more iron before menopause than after, because menstruation causes iron loss each month. People who have special iron intake needs include menstruating or pregnant women, children under two years of age, vegetarians, anyone with bleeding conditions such as haemorrhoids or bleeding stomach ulcers, and anyone taking the medications listed above.


Deficiency Can Cause...

  • anaemia
  • fatigue, paleness, dizziness.
  • sensitivity to cold.
  • listlessness
  • irritability and nervousness.
  • poor concentration.
  • heart palpitations.
  • susceptibility to infection.
  • brittle hair or hair loss.
  • digestive problems.
  • ridges running lengthwise on nails.
  • obesity.


Multivitamins will give you extra iron. It is not advisable to take straight iron tablets unless specifically recommended.
Too much iron can also cause problems, such as - inhibited absorption of phosphorus, interference with immune function, and may increase your risk of developing cancer, cirrhosis, or heart attack. Symptoms of iron toxicity include diarrhoea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, fatigue, stomach cramps, and weak pulse.

Iron



Recommended Dietary Intakes 

Men - 320 mg
Women - 270 mg
Pregnant women - add 30 mg


This Mineral Is Essential For...

  • production of energy.
  • assists in the assimilation of calcium and potassium.
  • a healthy heart, bones, muscles and blood vessels.
  • production of genetic materials.


Sources...

Dairy products, fish, nuts, meat and seafoods


Comments...

With the help of vitamin B6, magnesium can help to reduce kidney stones, prevent heart disease, bone abnormalities and some types of cancer. May help in alcoholism.


High levels of zinc, using diuretics, having diarrhoea and consuming alcohol will increase the need for magnesium.


Deficiencies Can Cause...

  • confusion.
  • fatigue.
  • mental and heart problems.
  • hypertension.
  • asthma.
  • migraine.
  • kidney stones.

Magnesium



Recommended Dietary Intakes
Adults - 2.0 mg to 5 mg (There is no amount specified in Australia, however these levels are thought to be adequate).


This Mineral Is Essential For...

  • proper formation and maintenance of bone, cartilage, and connective tissue.
  • contributing to the synthesis of proteins and genetic material.
  • producing energy from foods.
  • it acts as an antioxidant.
  • normal blood clotting.
  • nervous system.
  • blood sugar regulation


Sources...

Brown rice, nuts, seeds, avocados, seaweeds, wheat germ, beans, whole grains, peas, and strawberries.


Comments...

Deficiencies are rare and toxic levels are rare.


Deficiencies Can Cause...

  • atherosclerosis.
  • confusion.
  • convulsions.
  • eye problems.
  • diabetes.
  • osteoporosis.

Manganese



Recommended Dietary Intakes 

Adults - 75 - 250 mcg (however there is no set recommended dietary intake in Australia for this mineral.)


This Mineral Is Essential For...

  • nitrogen metabolism
  • iron utilisation
  • carbohydrate metabolism


Sources...

Peas, beans, cereals, pastas, dark greenleafy vegetables, yeast, milk, and organ meats.


Comments...

People generally get enough through diet; deficiency is virtually nonexistent. Toxicity is also rare. Tablets are available but it is not recommended that they are taken as higher doses than normal can cause toxicity. Too much of this mineral can cause weight loss, slow growth, anaemia, diarrhoea, increased levels of uric acid and swollen joints.


Deficiencies Can Cause...

  • gum disease
  • cancers
  • impotence in older men.

Molybdenum



Recommended Dietary Intakes 

Adults - 1950 - 5460 mg


This Vitamin Is Essential For...

Potassium is distributed throughout the body fluids including the blood, lymph and fluid in the cells. also

  • water balance in the body.
  • contraction of muscles.
  • balance of acid and alkali.
  • nerves.
  • energy metabolism.
  • helps prevent stroke.
  • helps maintain proper blood pressure.
  • protein synthesis.
  • carbohydrate metabolism.


Sources...

Lean meats, raw vegetables, and fruits (especially citrus fruits, bananas, avocados and potatoes), dairy products, fish, poultry.


Comments...

There are many things that can affect the levels of potassium in the body. These include - kidney disorders, diarrhoea, the overuse of laxatives, cigarette smoking and caffeine.


Deficiencies Can Cause...

  • nausea or headaches.
  • vomiting and diarrhoea or constipation.
  • dry skin or acne
  • muscle cramps and weakness.
  • poor reflexes.
  • poor concentration and depression or nervousness.
  • heart arrhythmia’s.


Slight potassium deficiency causes no symptoms.

Potassium



Recommended Dietary Intakes 

Adults - 920 - 2300 mg


This Mineral Is Essential For...

  • water balance in the body
  • muscle contraction
  • nerves
  • energy
  • stomach acid production


 Sources...

Most of the sodium we receive is from table salt, processed foods, soft drinks, meats, shellfish, condiments, snack foods, food additives, and over-the-counter laxatives.


Comments...

We generally consume far too much sodium. It is more likely that we consume excessive sodium than too little. Excessive sodium intake can result in high blood pressure, potassium deficiency, liver and kidney disease.
Keeping sodium intake within reasonable limits is critical for long-term health.


Deficiency Can Cause...

(Overexertion can cause the deficiency).

  • nausea.
  • dehydration.
  • muscle cramps, and other symptoms of heatstroke.
  • anorexia
  • fatigue.
  • flatulence.
  • headache.
  • low blood pressure.

Sodium



This Vitamin Is Essential For...

  • disinfects the blood.
  • resists bacteria.
  • aids in oxidation reactions.
  • aids in bile secretion.
  • protects against toxins.
  • aids the construction of connective tissue.
  • helps bones, teeth, skin, hair and nails.


Sources

Found in protein foods - egg, seafood, beans, milk products, nuts and meats.


Comments

Sulphur is a component of amino acids and is part of every cell, especially hair, nails, muscle, and skin. Neither sulfur deficiency nor toxicity occurs in humans. Inorganic sulfur ingested in large amounts can be harmful.

Sulfur



Recommended Dietary Intakes 

Men - 750 mcg
Women - 750 mcg


This vitamin is essential for…

  • eyes - vision (especially at night), inflammation.
  • skin - acne, psoriasis, dry or scaly skin, boils and other skin problems.
  • Hair - dandruff, dry or unhealthy hair
  • nails - peeling
  • mucous membranes - nose, throat, respiratory system, and digestive system, vagina, urinary tract and bladder.
  • bones and teeth - proper growth and development.
  • immune system - stimulates wound healing and is useful to ward off colds and flu.
  • youth - slows the aging process.
  • counteracts the toxic effects of smoking.
  • may help prevent some types of cancer.


Beta carotene which is related to vitamin A, acts either as a precursor to vitamin A and as an antioxidant. It is a natural food substance. Your skin stores beta carotene and your body metabolises it to produce vitamin A as needed. It is reported that beta carotene increases your resistance to infection and may help prevent some cancers and vision problems. Beta carotene may also reduce the risk of heart disease.


Sources...

Orange and yellow vegetables and fruits; dark-green leafy vegetables; whole milk, cream, egg yolks and butter; and animal livers, fish liver oils, garlic, and alfalfa.


Comments...

Vitamin A is fat-soluble, and therefore can is stored in the body long-term and supplements are generally not recommended. Too much vitamin A over long periods can cause headaches, vision problems, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dry and flaking skin, or an enlarged liver or spleen. Overdoses are not typical with beta-carotene however, as the body controls the conversion of it from this source.


Deficiencies Can Cause...

  • dry hair or skin
  • dry or inflamed eyes
  • poor growth
  • night blindness
  • insomnia
  • boils
  • continuous colds and flu
  • skin disorders
  • loss of appetite and weight.
  • diarrhoea.

Vitamin A



These Vitamins are Essential For…

The vitamin B complex is a combination of essential vitamins. Although each is a distinct nutrient, the B vitamins coexist in many of the same foods and often work together to maintain the health of the metabolism, skin, hair and muscle, immune and nervous system, eyes, liver, digestion system.


They promote cell growth and control stress, anxiety, headaches, depression, and cardiovascular disease.


Sources

Foods rich in B-complex vitamins include liver and other organ meats, fish, poultry, brewer's yeast, eggs, beans and peas, dark-green leafy vegetables, whole-grain cereals, and dairy products. B vitamins, which are water-soluble, are dispersed throughout the body and must be replenished daily; any excess is excreted in urine.


Deficiencies Can Cause...

  • Oily and scaly skin,
  • upset stomach,
  • headaches,
  • anxiety,
  • moodiness,
  • heart arrhythmia’s.

A deficiency of one B vitamin usually means that intake of all B vitamins is low. It is wise to take a B complex. Most B vitamins are non-toxic unless taken in excessively large amounts.

Vitamin B Complex



Recommended Dietary Intakes 

Men - 0.9 - 1.1 mg
Women - 0.7 -0 .8 mg
Children under seven - 0.15 -0 .7 mg
Children seven to eighteen - 0 .8 - 1.2 mg


This Vitamin Is Essential For...

  • metabolise carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
  • helps in the conversion of excess glucose into stored fat.
  • circulation.
  • blood formation.
  • increases stamina.
  • brain action, learning capacity and mental health.
  • aids digestion.
  • energy, growth and maintaining normal appetite.
  • muscle tone - particularly in the heart, intestines and stomach.
  • antioxidant.


Athletes, labourers, pregnant women, and other people who burn great amounts of energy may require more than the adult RDA of thiamine.


Sources...

Lean pork, milk, whole grains, brown rice, egg yolks, fish, legumes, liver, poultry, wheat germ, brewers yeast, broccoli, kelp, peas, beans, peanuts, or soybeans.


Comments...

Diets that are high in carbohydrates can decrease the levels of this vitamin as can the use of oral contraceptives, excess alcohol and antibiotics. Aggressive behaviour has been reduced by taking this vitamin. Please note the B vitamins should be taken as a complex and not taken individually unless specifically recommended.


Deficiencies Can Cause...

  • fatigue and insomnia.
  • loss of appetite.
  • nausea.
  • moodiness and depression.
  • confusion.
  • anaemia.
  • heart arrhythmia’s.
  • Alcohol suppresses thiamine absorption.
  • Beriberi, a disease of the nervous system.

Vitamin B1



Recommended Dietary Intakes 

Adults - 2 mcg; 

Pregnant women - add 0.1 mcg


This Vitamin Is Essential For...

  • converting fats, carbohydrates, and protein into energy,
  • assisting in the synthesis of red blood cells.
  • producing the genetic materials.
  • amino acid and fatty acid metabolism
  • healthy nerves, blood cells, skin and hair
  • growth.
  • proper digestion.


Sources...

Vitamin B12 is supplied through animal products - organ meats, fish, eggs, brewers yeast,clams, sea vegetables such as kelp kombu, soybeans, soy products and dairy products.


Comments...

Vegetarians need supplements of this vitamin as it is mostly found in animal products. Vitamin B12 is stored in the body for up to five years, so it may take a while before signs of deficiency show.


Deficiencies Can Cause...

Dietary deficiency is uncommon and usually is apparent in alcoholics, elderly people, strict vegetarians, people who are not absorbing the vitamin, and pregnant or nursing women. 


Symptoms may include:

  • a sore tongue and mouth ulcers.
  • weakness, fatigue, memory loss and dizziness.
  • weight loss.
  • body odour.
  • back pains.
  • tingling arms and legs.
  • Severe deficiency leads to pernicious anaemia.
  • digestive disorders
  • constipation.
  • eye disorders
  • headaches.

Vitamin B12



Recommended Dietary Intakes 

Men - 1.3 - 1.7 mg 

Women - 1.0 - 1.2 mg 

Pregnant women - 0.3 mg more


This Vitamin Is Essential For...

  • helps produce energy from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
  • healthy skin, hair, nails, and mucous membranes.
  • helps in the production of red blood cells, corticosteroids, and thyroid hormones.
  • nerves.
  • eyes- cataracts, fatigue.
  • adrenal glands.
  • hair - dandruff.


This vitamin may also be used to treat acne, anaemia, cataracts, and depression.


Sources...

Lean organ meats, fish, poultry, enriched bread and flour, wholegrains, cheese, yogurt, eggs, almonds, soybean products, and green leafy vegetables - especially broccoli.


(If you eat a well-balanced diet, you should receive all the B2 you require.) Although athletes and people who expend a great deal of energy may require more than the RDA.


Comments...

Vitamin B2 breaks down in sunlight. Alcoholics and elderly people may need more of this vitamin. An easy way to receive more B2 is to change your diet. Please note, the B vitamins should be taken as a complex and not individually unless specially recommended.


Deficiencies Can Cause...

  • oily, scaly skin rash, lesions, dermatitis.
  • sores on the lips and corners of the mouth
  • a swollen, red, painful tongue and poor digestion.
  • sensitivity to light.
  • eye problems.
  • carpel tunnel syndrome.
  • hair - dandruff, hair loss.

Vitamin B2



Recommended Dietary Intakes 

Men - 16 - 19 mg 

Women - 11- 13 mg 

Pregnant women - add 2 mg


This Vitamin Is Essential For...

  • releases energy from food.
  • build red blood cells.
  • circulation - it dilates blood vessels.
  • skin, nerves, and blood vessels
  • support the digestive system.
  • mental health and memory.
  • de-toxify certain drugs and chemicals in the body.
  • works with insulin to regulate blood sugar levels.


Sources...

Liver, poultry, lean meats, fish, nuts, peanut butter, brewers yeast, broccoli, carrots, cheese, dates, eggs, milk, potatoes, tomatoes and enriched flour. If you get enough protein, you are probably receiving adequate niacin as well.


Comments

Sometimes people taking supplements of this vitamin may experience a hot flush or a pins and needles sensations on the body. This is usually harmless. Pregnant women, people who have liver problems, gout or diabetics should take care in taking niacin supplements. See your Doctor or our Pharmacist before undertaking a course of B3.


Deficiency

  • indigestion
  • diarrhoea
  • muscle weakness
  • loss of appetite
  • dermatitis
  • mouth sores
  • a red, inflamed tongue
  • headaches
  • irritability; anxiety; or depression.
  • Pregnant or breast-feeding women, the elderly, alcoholics, and people with hyperthyroidism are most likely to be niacin deficient.


Extreme deficiency results in pellagra.


Please note, the B vitamins should be taken as a complex and not individually unless Professionally recommended. Vitamin B3 is toxic in high amounts, so megadoses should be taken only under a doctor's supervision.

Vitamin B3



Recommended Dietary Intakes
3 - 7 mg is considered adequate.


This Vitamin Is Essential For...

  • converting food to energy - stamina.
  • building red blood cells
  • making bile
  • the nervous system.
  • immune system - the healing of wounds (as a topically applied cream).


Sources...

Organ meats, poultry, salmon and other salt water fish, wheat bran, brewer's yeast, brown rice, lentils, nuts, beans, corn, peas, fresh vegetables, legumes, mushrooms, sweet potatoes, and eggs.


Comments...

Excess pantothenic acid may cause diarrhoea. This vitamin can be stored in the liver. Applied topically in a shampoo, this vitamin may improve the condition of the hair.


Deficiency Can Cause...

A deficiency in this vitamin is rare. However the likely signs are fatigue, headache, nausea and pins and needles in the hands.
Please note, the B vitamins should be taken as a complex and not individually unless professionally recommended.

Vitamin B5



Recommended Dietary Intakes 

Men - 1.0 - 1.9 mg;
Women - 0.8 - 1.1 mg; 

Pregnant women - add 0.1 mg


This Vitamin Is Essential For...

  • immune function
  • nerve-impulse transmission (especially in the brain)
  • energy metabolism
  • red blood cell synthesis.
  • premenstrual syndrome - water retention.


This vitamin is part of more functions that most others. A healthy diet provides enough Vitamin B6 for most people.


Sources...

Brown rice, lean meats, poultry, fish, bananas, avocados, carrots, peas, spinach, whole grains, sunflower seeds, walnuts, brewers yeast, corn.


Comments....

People most likely to be at risk for vitamin B6 are those with lactose intolerance or celiac disease, diabetes or elderly people; and women who are pregnant, nursing, or taking oral contraceptives.


Please note, the B vitamins should be taken as a complex and not individually unless specifically recommended to you.


Deficiencies Can Cause...

Severe deficiency is rare. Mild deficiency may cause -

  • acne and inflamed or flaky skin, oily skin.
  • hair loss.
  • insomnia.
  • muscle weakness, stunted growth.
  • nausea, headaches.
  • irritability, depression, and fatigue.
  • anaemia.
  • dandruff.

Vitamin B6



Recommended Dietary Intakes 

Men - 200 mcg 

Women - 200 mcg


This Vitamin Is Essential For...

  • the maintenance and production of energy.
  • formation of red blood cells.
  • healthy hair, skin and nails.
  • nervous system.
  • a healthy pregnancy.
  • mental health.


Sources...

Liver, kidneys, beef, poultry, oily fish, cheese, avocados, beans, beets, celery, eggs, milk, fish, mushrooms, green leafy vegetables, nuts, seeds, lentils, brown rice, barley, peas, orange juice, brewers yeast and fortified breakfast cereals.


Comments

Please note, the B vitamins should be taken as a complex and not individually unless specially recommended. A healthy diet should provide enough folic acid, but you may find you need more if you are pregnant, just had an injury, or if you have been taking drugs or the oral contraceptive long term. Caution should be taken as large doses of Folic acid can mask a B12 deficiency which can lead to nerve problems.


Deficiencies

  • anaemia
  • pallor.
  • fatigue
  • loss of appetite
  • insomnia
  • diarrhoea
  • red, inflamed tongue.

Vitamin B9 - Folic Acid



Recommended Dietary Intakes
Men - 40 mg; 

Women - 30 mg
Pregnant women - 60 mg


This Vitamin Is Essential For

  • the production of collagen.
  • the healing of wounds, burns, bruises and broken bones.
  • immune and nervous system.
  • rheumatoid arthritis.
  • prevention of heart disease.
  • help prevent some forms of cancer.
  • potential to prevent the common cold.
  • tissue growth and repair.
  • healthy gums.
  • protects against pollution.


Sources...

Citrus fruits, berries, rose hips, capsicum, strawberries, broccoli, rockmelons, tomatoes, and leafy greens. Eat these vegetables when fresh.


Comments...

This is a water soluble vitamin and must be replenished through the diet. Large doses for too long may cause kidney problems. Avoid the chewable vitamins as these may cause damage to your teeth. Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, oral contraceptives, steroids and analgesics increase the need for this vitamin. Take divided doses of the vitamin twice daily to get the best effect. This vitamin has had amazing results with cancer patients, AIDS victims and people with heart disease.


Deficiency Can Cause...

  • weight loss.
  • fatigue and joint pains.
  • bleeding gums.
  • bruising.
  • scurvy.
  • reduced resistance to colds and other infections.
  • slow-healing wounds and fractures.


Because it is water-soluble, excess vitamin C is excreted in the urine, so larger amounts of it may usually be taken without fear of toxicity. For exact doses, it is important to speak with your doctor or other health care practitioner.

Vitamin C



This Vitamin Is Essential For...

  • healthy bones and teeth.
  • normal muscle contraction.
  • nerve function.
  • prevents rickets.
  • psoriasis.
  • some cancers.


Sources

Fatty fish such as herring, salmon, and tuna, dairy products, eggs, summer sun, breakfast cereals, and infant formulas are fortified with vitamin D.


Comments

The vitamin D we receive from food or supplements is not active until it is converted by the liver and kidneys. Therefore if you have problems with these organs, you may not be absorbing enough Vitamin D. If you sit out in the sun for a short while your reserves will be replenished.


If you are going to take vitamin D supplements, do not take them without calcium and beware of how much you are taking. Always seek professional advice.


Deficiencies

  • nervousness and diarrhoea.
  • insomnia and loss of appetite.
  • muscle twitches.
  • bone weakening.
  • may worsen osteoporosis.

Vitamin D



Recommended Dietary Intakes

Men - 10 mg alpha TE
Women - 7 mg alpha TE


This Vitamin Is Essential For...

  • immune system, endocrine system, and sex glands.
  • antioxidant, it may prevent cancer and heart disease.
  • atherosclerosis and improves circulation.
  • accelerates wound healing.
  • protects lung tissue from inhaled pollutants.
  • may reduce risk for heart disease.
  • and may prevent premature skin aging and helps reduce scar tissue.
  • cataracts.
  • rheumatoid arthritis.
  • leg cramps.
  • nervous system
  • skin and hair.


Sources...

Cold pressed vegetable oils, nuts, dark-green leafy vegetables, organic meats, seafood, eggs, and avocados.


Comments

This is a fat soluable vitamin and it acts as an antioxidant. Supplements should not be taken with any anticoagulant medication. If you have diabetes, rheumatic heart disease or an overactive thyroid condition do not take supplements of this vitamin.


People with candida may benefit from vitamin E.


Deficiencies Can Cause...

  • fluid retention.
  • nerve problems.
  • infertility.
  • menstrual problems.
  • miscarriages.
  • may cause some forms of heart disease.

Vitamin E



This Vitamin Is Essential For...

  • bone formation
  • kidney and liver functioning
  • blood clotting


Sources...

Spinach, asparagus, cabbage, brussel sprouts, cauliflower, broccoli, turnip greens, or other dark leafy vegetables, beef, liver; green tea; cheese, egg yolks, and oats.


Comments...

If you take antibiotics, you may need to eat more of the above foods to increase you intake of this vitamin. Supplements are not usually recommended or needed. Do not take this vitamin via supplements if you are pregnant.


Deficiencies Can Cause...

Vitamin K deficiency is extremely rare in adults but may occur in newborns until their intestinal bacteria begin producing the vitamin.


Deficiencies may result in internal or abnormal bleeding

Vitamin K



Recommended Dietary Intakes
Adults - 12 mg; 

Pregnant Women - 16 mg


This Mineral Is Essential For...

  • production of genetic material.
  • energy production
  • bone development and growth;
  • wound healing.
  • the liver's ability to remove toxic substances such as alcohol from the body .
  • immune function.
  • regulation of heart rate and blood pressure.
  • healthy brain, teeth, bones and skin.
  • hormone production.


Sources...

Lean meat and seafood, eggs, soybeans, peanuts, wheat bran, cheese, oysters, brewers yeast, kelp, liver, mushrooms, nuts, oysters, pumpkin seeds and sunflower seeds.


Comments

An adequate zinc intake enhances the ability to taste, promotes healthy skin and hair, enhances reproductive functions, and may improve short-term memory and attention span.


Zinc is sometimes used to treat acne, rheumatoid arthritis, and prostatitis. Levels of zinc may be decreased by diarrhoea, kidney disease, diabetes or too much fibre. Do not take zinc tablets at the same time you take iron tablets.


Too much zinc can impair immune function and cause nausea, headaches, vomiting, dehydration, stomach aches, poor muscle coordination, fatigue, and possibly kidney failure. Always try to increase your zinc levels by eating the foods rich in this mineral.


Deficiencies Can Cause...

Young children, pregnant women, vegetarians, and elderly people are most susceptible to zinc deficiency.

  • Loss of taste
  • hair loss or discolouration
  • white streaks on the nails
  • dermatitis
  • loss of appetite
  • fatigue
  • poor wound healing
  • In children, zinc deficiency can retard growth.

Zinc